Peer-to-peer end-use of VoIP services are not regulated in Brazil, as VoIP is not considered a telecommunications service as such by the Brazilian National Telecommunications Agengcy (ANATEL). Instead, VoIP is defined as a Value-Added Service, an activity that takes place via telecom media - VoIP service providers are considered "users," and must possess the relevant Brazilian telecom licenses for telephony. As such, VoIP cannot be provided by service providers (such as Pay TV companies) who do not already hold a license (either a PSTS/STFC or SCM license) for public telephony.
The Brazilian VoIP market is competitive, with a number of traditional telecom companies providing VoIP service via cable Internet. Though according to Ipsos only 4% of Brazilian Internet users use VoIP regularly, this figure may understate the number of users who use VoIP as part of a bundle of telecom services.
In Latin America more broadly, VoIP was apparently illegal as of 2007 in Bolivia, Guyana, Paraguay and Costa Rica (for international calls). However, the practical efficacy of government restrictions on VoIP seems generally low; VoIP services are widely available in Bolivian Internet cafes, for instance.